The heavenly bodies are Demonsof the world of darkness who cause all the misery and strife in the world. The Testament of Solomon identifies two groups of seven or 36 heavenly bodies who are Demonic powers of the world. Tsol 8 describes the first group of seven. Interrogated by King Solomon, the Demons say they live together in Lydia or on Mount Olympus, and they change their position. Their stars in heaven look small, but they are named as gods are. Six of them are thwarted (nullified) by certain Angels.
The seven are the following:
• Deception, who deceives and causes the most evil heresies. He is thwarted by the angel Lamechiel.
• Strife, who provides weapons for fighting and warfare. He is thwarted by the angel Baruchiel.
• Fate, who causes men to fight instead of make peace with those who are winning. He is thwarted by the angel Marmaroth.
• Distress, who divides and separates men into opposing factions and creates jealousy, and who is followed by Strife. He is thwarted by the angel Balthioul.
• Error, who leads men astray by causing them to kill each other, dig up graves, and do other wicked things. He is thwarted by the archangel Uriel.
• Power, who feeds the greed for power, establishes tyrants, and deposes kings. He is thwarted by the angel Asteraoth.
• The Worst, who tells Solomon he will harm the king by causing him to be bound with the bonds of Artemis. The Worst does not name a THWARTING Angel. Solomon sentences the seven Demons to dig the foundation of the Temple of Jerusalem, which is 250 cubits in length.
Tsol 18 describes the second group of 36 heavenly bodies, Demons who correspond to the decans (10-degree segments) of the zodiac. When summoned by Solomon, they appear with their heads “like formless dogs.” Some have the forms of humans, bulls, or dragons, with faces of birds, beasts, or sphinxes. They call themselves the world rulers of darkness and say the king has no power to harm them or lock them up, but since he has dominion over all the spirits of the air, the earth and beneath the earth, they take their place before him as other spirits do. Solomon instructs them to appear before him in order and explain who they are.
The Demons are as follows:
• Ruax, who causes headaches and is thwarted by Michael
• Barsfael, who causes pains in the side of the head and is thwarted by Gabriel
• Artosael, who damages the eyes and eyesight and is thwarted by Uriel
• Oropel, who causes sore throats and mucus and is thwarted by Raphael
• Kairoxanondalon, who causes ear obstructions and is thwarted by Ourouel (possibly a variant of Uriel)
• Sphendonael, who causes tumors of the parotid gland and painful stiffening of the body and is thwarted by Sabael
• Sphandor, who paralyzes limbs, destroys the nerves of the hand (possibly carpal tunnel), and weakens shoulders and is thwarted by Arael
• Belbel, who causes perversions and is thwarted by Karael
• Kourtael, who causes colic and bowel problems and is thwarted by Iaoth
• Metathiax, who causes kidney pain and is thwarted by Adonael
• Katanikotael, who causes domestic fights and disharmony. He is thwarted by sprinkling a house with water in which laurel leaves have been soaked and by intoning, “Angel, Eae, Ieo, Sabaoth.”
• Saphthoreal, who causes mental confusion and is thwarted by a written Charm worn around the neck that says, “Iae, Iao, sons of Sabaoth”
• Phobothel, who causes loosening of the tendons and is thwarted by Adonai
• Leroel, who causes chills, fever, and sore throat and is thwarted by the recitation of the words “Iax, do not stand fast, do not be fervent, because Solomon is fairer than eleven fathers”
• Soubelti, who causes shivering and numbness and is thwarted by Rizoel
• Katrax, who causes fatal fevers and is thwarted when a person rubs coriander on his or her lips and says, “I adjure you by Zeus, retreat from the image of God.”
• Ieropa, who sits on stomachs and causes convulsions in the bath and who causes seizures and is thwarted when a person repeats three times into the right ear of the afflicted “Iouda Zazabou”
• Modebel, who causes husbands and wives to separate and is thwarted when someone places a written charm bearing the names of the “eight fathers” (Egyptian deities) on doorways
• Mardero, who causes incurable fevers and is thwarted when his name is written in a house
• Rix Nathotho, who causes knee problems and is thwarted when the name Phouneiel is written on papyrus
• Rhyx Alath, who causes croup in infants and is thwarted by the name Raarideris written and carried on a person
• Rhyx Audameoth, who causes heart pain and is thwarted by Raiouoth
• Rhyx Manthado, who causes pain in the kidneys and is thwarted by the written charm “Iaoth, Ouriel” (Uriel)
• Rhyx Atonme, who causes rib pain and is thwarted with a charm written on a piece of wood from a ship that has run aground that says, “Marmaraoth of mist”
• Rhyx Anatreth, who causes gas and burning bowels and is thwarted by “Arara, Arare”
• Rhyx, the Enautha, who causes people to change their minds and hearts and is thwarted by Kalazael
• Rhyx Axesbuth, who causes diarrhea and hemorrhoids and is thwarted by pure wine that is drunk
• Rhyx Hapax, who causes insomnia and is thwarted when the written charm “Kok; Phedismos” is worn on the temples
• Rhyx Anoster, who causes hysteria and bladder pain and is thwarted when the afflicted takes laurel seeds, mashes them into oil, and massages the preparation into the body while repeating, “I adjure you by Marmaraoth”
• Rhyx Physikoreth, who causes long-term illness and is thwarted when the afflicted massages the body with salted olive oil while saying, “Cherubim, seraphim, help (me)”
• Rhyx Aleureth, who causes the swallowing of fish bones and is thwarted when a fish bone is put in the breasts of the afflicted
• Rhyx Ichthuon, who causes detached tendons and is thwarted by the words “Adonai, malthe”
• Rhyx Achoneoth, who causes sore throats and tonsillitis and is thwarted by a written charm of “Leikourgos” on ivy leaves made into a pile
• Rhyx Autoth, who causes jealousy and quarrels between people who love each other and is thwarted by a written charm of the letters alpha and beta
• Rhyx Phtheneoth, who casts the Evil Eye and is thwarted by an inscribed eye
• Rhyx Mianeth, who holds “a grudge against the body” and causes flesh to rot and houses to be demolished and is thwarted by a written charm, “Melto Ardad Anaath,” placed at the entrance to a home
Solomon forces all of these heavenly bodies to bear water for the Temple of Jerusalem.
Further Reading :
- The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vols. 1 & 2. Edited by James H. Charlesworth. New York: Doubleday, 1985.