Animals – Shamans engage with animals in a range of significant ways. In societies that live by hunting, shamans may journey beyond their physical location or seek the aid of knowledgeable other than human helpers to locate prey. They may also seek permission from those who control animal groups (a master or mistress of animals) before the hunt or offer them gratitude afterward. In animist communities (where animals may be considered to be persons or to have souls), shamans may be required to mediate between their human kin and animals or their “owners” who may be offended by the taking of lives. Bear ceremonialism and totemism form wider contexts in which some shamans also form intimate relationships with particular animals or animal species. In initiation, they may bond with animals who become their helpers throughout their careers or lives. Animal communities may also be thought to employ shamans among themselves, and sometimes such shamans visit human shamans. As among humans, some animal shamans can be dangerous and unwelcome, that is, may practice sorcery. Particular cultures give priority to particular animals; for example, jaguars and anacondas are especially important in Amazonia.
- Power Animals.