Cannibalism – The seemingly ubiquitous fear of cannibalism is expressed in many similar myths and allegations about cannibals in many cultures. Shamans may be expected to protect their communities from human or other-than-human cannibals who threaten this form of predation. In Amazonia, for example, shamans may mediate between otherworld beings and deities who would otherwise consume the blood and flesh of all humans. However, this dangerous allegiance between shamans, especially dark shamans, places them among cannibals, vampires, alligators, and human enemies. Nonetheless, even dark shamans, at least when young, may act in a liminal position as healers of the illnesses caused by aggressors and may combat clients’ enemies.