Mesopotamian Mythology

Since the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians and others all shared essentially the same pantheon and belief systems, these articles are all combined under the Mesopotamian mythology / deities / legendary creatures category.

Aa

Aa (A, Anunit, Aya) In Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian-Assyrian), consort of the sun god Shamash, sometimes called Makkatu (mistress; queen) ...
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Abtagigi

Abtagigi is the Sumerian spirit of sacred sexuality. She awakens and stimulates erotic impulses. Babylonians and Assyrians used the Semitic ...
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Adapa

Adapa (man) In Near Eastern mythology, Babylonian hero who lost the gift of immortality for humankind through a trick of ...
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Akhkharu

Akhkharu Pronunciation: Ack-CAH-roo Variations: AKAKHARU, Rapganmekhab In the language of the ancient Sumerians, thisis the word that is used when ...
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Allallu

Allallu :  In the Babylonian epic poem Gilgamesh, a fantastic bird destroyed by the goddess Ishtar. The goddess at one ...
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Alu

Alu ORIGIN: Babylonia Alu are a type of Babylonian spirit. Their name may be translated as “Storm” or “Tempest” but ...
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Ancient Babylonian and Assyrian Vampires

Variations: Lamia, Lilatou, Lilats, Lîlît, Lilith As far back as the 24th century B. C., the people of Babylon and ...
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Ansar and Kisar

In Mesopotamian myth, Anšar and Kisar were a pair of primordials, respectively male and female, and perhaps representing the heaven ...
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Anshar

Anshar (Assors, Shar) (the totality of what is above) In Near Eastern mythology (SumeroAkkadian), a primeval sky god who sent ...
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Anu

Anu (An, Ana, Anos, Dana, Danu, Nanu) (lofty, sky) In Near Eastern mythology (Sumero-Akkadian), sky god, head of a triad ...
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Anunnaki

Anunnaki (Anunna, Anunnake, Ennuki) : In Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian), gods or spirits of the underworld, opposed to the Igigi, ...
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Apsu

Apsu (Absu, Apason, Apsu-Rishtu) (sweet water ocean) In Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian), primordial god of fresh water, husband of Tiamat, ...
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Aralu

Aralu (Arallu, Irkalla) In Near Eastern mythology, the Babylonian land of the dead, ruled over by the goddess Ereshkigal and ...
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Ardat Lili

Ardat Lili ORIGIN:Sumeria Ardat Lili is a dangerous storm spirit from ancient Sumeria, a vampiric succubus who visits men at ...
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Aruru

Aruru is in Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian-Assyrian), a creator goddess, perhaps a later manifestation of the Great Goddess. Together with ...
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Atargatis

Atargatis ALSO KNOWN AS: Dea Syria, “the Syrian goddess” (Rome); Derceto, “whale of Der” (Philistine) ORIGIN: Sumeria Fish swimming in ...
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Av

Av (Ab) Fifth month in the cultic calendar of the ancient Babylonians. Av corresponds to parts of July and August ...
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Bau

Bau ORIGIN: Sumer (Mesopotamia) Bau, Goddess of Healing and Life, was once among the most significant deities of the Sumerian ...
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Bel

Bel (lord, master) In Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian-Assyrian), earth god; a form of the title Baal (lord) applied to various ...
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Belit

Belit is in Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian - Assyrian), wife of the great god Bel. Among her many titles were ...
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Benini

Benini : In Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian), a monster with the face of a bird or raven. Benini, along with ...
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Damkina

Damkina (Dauke, Dawkina) (rightful wife) is in Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian - Assyrian), earth goddess married to Enki, lord of ...
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Dilmun

Dilmun In Near Eastern mythology (Sumerian), paradise, the place where the sun rises and the land of the living. At ...
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Duranki

Duranki (the bond that unites heaven and earth) Ancient name for Nippur, a Sumerian city sacred to the god Enlil ...
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Ea

Ea (Hea, Hoa) In Near Eastern mythology (Sumero-Akkadian), god of sweet waters, earth, and wisdom; patron of the arts; one ...
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Ee

Ea (Hea, Hoa) In Near Eastern mythology (Sumero-Akkadian), god of sweet waters, earth, and wisdom; patron of the arts; one ...
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Ekimmu

The ekimmu was in ancient Assyria, the evil Ghost of one who was denied entrance to the underworld and was ...
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Enki

Enki - Lord of the Earth; Lord of Waters Enki is the Sumerian lord of water, abundance, and wisdom. Depending ...
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Enkidu

Enkidu (Eabani, Endimdu, Engidu, Enkita) (land of the good place) In the Babylonian epic poem Gilgamesh, rival and companion to ...
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Enlil

Enlil (Bel Enlil, Eilil, Illillos) (storm god) In Near Eastern mythology (Sumero-Akkadian), creator god, storm god, god of earth and ...
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Ereshkigal

Ereshkigal (queen of the great below) is in Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian - Assyrian), goddess of the underworld, married to ...
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Etana

Etana (Etanna) (strong) In Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian), hero who ascended to the heavens on the back of an eagle ...
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Gestinana

Gestinana - The Mother Vine of Heaven; Lady of the Wilderness; Lady of the Underworld In the myth of Inanna’s ...
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Gula

Gula In Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian), goddess of healing, life-giver, the great physician who preserved the body in health and ...
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Humbaba

Humbaba (Huwawa, Kumbaba) In the Babylonian epic poem Gilgamesh, demon-spirit, guardian of the sacred Cedar Tree, killed by Gilgamesh and ...
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Inanna

Inanna is the Sumerian mother Goddess, queen of heaven and ruler of the cycles of the seasons and fertility. She ...
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Irra

Irra (Dibbara, Girra, Iea, Ura) In Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian-Assyrian), god of pestilence, the fearful slaughterer who laid waste the ...
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Ishhara

In Western Asia, scorpions are traditional symbols of romance, their sting analogous to Cupid’s arrows. Ishhara is Mesopotamia’s ancient erotic ...
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Ishtar

Ishtar The great mother Goddess of ancient Assyrian and Babylonian mythology. Ishtar was said to be either the daughter of ...
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Jahi

Jahi The Harlot; The Whore ORIGIN: Mesopotamia Jahi is a primordial spirit who may have begun her incarnation as a ...
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Labartu

Labartu is a Mesopotamian goddess with Demonic characteristics, associated with Lilitu, the prototype of Lilith. Labartu carries a Serpent in ...
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Lahmu

Lahmu is a benevolent Assyrian god who protects against evil Demons. Lahmu means “hairy,” a description of the god’s long ...
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Lamastu

Lamastu is a Babylonian and Assyrian goddess who practices evil for its own sake. Lamastu is usually translated as “Demonness.” ...
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Lillu Spirits

Lillu Spirits ORIGIN: Sumeria The Lillu are a clan of primordial storm and wind spirits, many of whom developed a ...
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Lugulbanda

Lugulbanda is in Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian-Assyrian), a shepherd god who appears as a protector and father of the hero ...
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MARDUK

Marduk (bull calf of the sun) In Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian), hero-god who defeated the monster of chaos, Tiamat, and ...
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Mylitta

Mylitta descended to Earth in the form of a flaming, falling star that landed in the freshwater spring named Afqa, ...
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Nabu

Nabu Also known as : Nebo Nabu is the Babylonian lord of wisdom and writing, introduced to Mesopotamia by the ...
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Namtar

Namtar ORIGIN: Sumer (Mesopotamia) The name Namtar means “death” or “destiny.” Namtar, death spirit, is responsible for creating illness in ...
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Nanshe

Nanshe Our Lady of Dreams; Lady of Abundance; The Queen Mother ORIGIN: Sumeria, Babylonia Nanshe, the daughter of Sumerian deities ...
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Nergal

Nergal (lord of the great city) In Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian-Assyrian), war god, lord of the underworld, husband of Ereshkigal, ...
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Ninib

Ninib (Nerig, Nineb, Nin-ip, Nirig) In Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian), god of the summer sun who opposes Marduk, the hero ...
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Ninurta

Ninurta (Ningirsu, Nimurta, Nimurash) In Near Eastern mythology (Sumero-Akkadian), war god and patron of hunting, son of Enlil or Bel ...
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Nisaba

Nisaba is the goddess of education, learning and writing. She also has dominion over harvests of all kinds, agricultural or ...
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Nisroc

Nisroc Assyrian deity who became both a good Angel and a Fallen Angel. As a fallen angel in Hell, Nisroc ...
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Pazuzu

Pazuzu is an Assyrian and Babylonian Demon god of the first millennium B.C.E., who sends diseases, pestilence, and plagues into ...
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Rimmon

Rimmon (Ramman, Rammanu) (the thunderer) In Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian-Assyrian), the storm god, often called Adad or Hadad. In the ...
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Sarpanitum

Sarpanitum (silvery bright one) In Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian-Assyrian), goddess who presided over the sweet waters, earth, and wisdom. She ...
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Semiramis

Semiramis The Gift of the Sea ALSO KNOWN AS: Sammuramat (Assyrian); Shamiram (Armenian) Semiramis, daughter of the mermaid goddess Atargatis, ...
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Shamash

Shamash In Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian-Assyrian), sun god, (originally female) god of justice and healing, his consort was the goddess ...
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Siduri

Siduri : The Woman of the Vine Siduri appears in the saga of Gilgamesh. She is the barmaid at the ...
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Sin

Sin The Illuminator; Lord of Wisdom ALSO KNOWN AS: Nanna ORIGIN: Mesopotamia Sin, as in “venal” or “deadly,” does not ...
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Tammuz

Tammuz Also known as: Dumuzi Inanna-Ishtar took Tammuz, the divine shepherd, as her lover. He quickly became her favourite, and ...
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Ubshukinna

Ubshukinna (Ubshukenna, Upshukkinaku) (chamber of destinies) In Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian), heavenly council hall of the gods. It was reproduced ...
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Zag-Muk

Zag-Muk (Zagmuku) Babylonian New Year festival held in spring in honor of the great hero god Marduk, who on that ...
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Ziggurat

ziggurat (zikkurat, ziqqurat) (pinnacle) Mesopotamian stepped pyramid usually built of brick and forming part of any temple complex. Because Babylonians ...
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Ziusudra

Ziusudra (Sisouthros, Ziudsuddu) In Near Eastern mythology (Sumerian), hero of the flood myth, which is fragmentary and has in part ...
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Mesopotamia

NOTE Since the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians and others all shared essentially the same pantheon and belief systems, these books are all combined under the…

Damkina

Damkina (Dauke, Dawkina) (rightful wife) is in Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian – Assyrian), earth goddess married to Enki, lord of the good place. She was…

Aa

Aa (A, Anunit, Aya) In Near Eastern mythology (Babylonian-Assyrian), consort of the sun god Shamash, sometimes called Makkatu (mistress; queen). Originally Aa may have been…

Ninurta

Ninurta (Ningirsu, Nimurta, Nimurash) In Near Eastern mythology (Sumero-Akkadian), war god and patron of hunting, son of Enlil or Bel and Innini. He was called…